About IEDP

About IEDP

The IEDP was established in 1999 by the IPSA at the Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy. It is a student initiated, three-credit program that serves as a forum for students to discuss the challenges faced by developing economies. IEDP participants engage in a seven-week course in the winter semester, extensively studying the country of choice, and then take a one-week trip to the country over Spring Break. During the trip, IEDP students conduct extensive interviews and discussions with policymakers, members of civil society, foreign development agencies and university students. So far the IEDP has visited 11 countries, including Ethiopia, Cuba, Morocco, China, Costa Rica, Peru, Jordan, Senegal and the Philippines. The country of study for 2011 is Grenada, the first country from the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) in the IEDP's history.

Friday, April 1, 2011

IEDP Disaster Management Presentation

For those who missed the IEDP Final Presentation, you can take a look at how the Disaster Management Team worked during the spring break and what the team's final product looks like at this website.  The website only captures part of the DM project; you will find how the IEDP works during the Spring Break.

It is an interesting project, not only in a sense of placing a part of its final presentation/product on the public domain, but also putting some of relevant information (part of).  The Internet is becoming an integral part of education.  Instructors use blogs and/or wiki as an information sharing tool among class participants.  It becomes a learning experience to get students accustomed with working in the public domain/open source environment.

Best Sweet Potato Pie with Grenadian Nutmeg

From the best recipe source: cook's illustrated!!


Makes one 9-inch pie, serving 8 to 10. Published November 1, 1999.


For a sweet potato pie recipe that would really taste like sweet potato pie, we microwaved and mashed the potatoes, which preserved some bite in their texture. White sugar and a touch of molasses brought us still closer to the pie we were look...(more)

For prebaking the pie shell, we prefer metal or ceramic pie weights because of their heft and ability to conduct heat. Remove the foil lining and weights only after the dough has lost its wet look and has turned straw-colored from its original yellow hue. This will prevent the sides of the pie shell from slipping down and losing their shape. The sweet potatoes cook quickly in the microwave but can also be pricked with a fork and baked uncovered in a 400-degree oven until tender, 40 to 50 minutes. Some tasters preferred a stronger bourbon flavor in the filling, so we give a range below. If you like molasses, use the optional tablespoon; a few tasters felt it deepened the sweet potato flavor. Serve the pie with whipped cream.

INGREDIENTS- You can buy Pie Crusts !!

· Pie Dough-

· 1 1/4cups unbleached all-purpose flour

· 1/2teaspoon table salt

· 1tablespoon granulated sugar

· 4tablespoons unsalted butter , chilled, cut into 1/4-inch pieces

· 3tablespoons vegetable shortening , chilled

· 4 - 5tablespoons ice water

· Sweet Potato Filling

· 2pounds sweet potatoes (about 5 small to medium)- (I baked them)

· 2tablespoons unsalted butter , softened

· 3large eggs

· 2egg yolks

· 1cup granulated sugar

· 1/2teaspoon fresh ground nutmeg

· 1/4teaspoon table salt

· 2 - 3tablespoons bourbon

· 1tablespoon molasses (optional)-I did not use

· 1teaspoon vanilla extract

· 2/3cup whole milk

· 1/4cup packed dark brown sugar


1. 1. In food processor bowl fitted with steel blade, pulse flour, salt, and sugar to combine. Scatter butter pieces over flour mixture; cut butter into flour with five 1-second pulses. Add shortening and continue cutting in until flour is pale yellow and resembles coarse cornmeal, with butter bits no larger than small peas, about four more 1-second pulses. Turn mixture into medium bowl.

2. 2. Sprinkle 4 tablespoons ice water over mixture. With rubber spatula, use folding motion to evenly distribute water into flour mixture until small portion of dough holds together when squeezed in palm of hand; add up to 1 tablespoon more ice water if necessary. Turn dough onto clean, dry work surface; gather and gently press together into cohesive ball, then flatten into rough 4-inch disk. Wrap in plastic and refrigerate at least 30 minutes, or up to 2 days, before rolling.

3. 3. Remove dough from refrigerator (if refrigerated longer than 30 minutes, let stand at room temperature until malleable). Roll dough on lightly floured work surface or between two large sheets of plastic wrap to 12-inch disk about 1/8 inch thick. Fold dough in quarters, then place dough point in center of 9-inch pie plate; unfold dough.

4. 4. Working around circumference of pan, ease dough carefully into pan corners by gently lifting dough edges with one hand while pressing around pan bottom with other hand. Trim edge to 1/2 inch beyond pan lip. Tuck rim of dough underneath itself so that folded edges are about 1/4 inch beyond pan lip; flute dough. Refrigerate pie shell for 40 minutes, then freeze for 20 minutes. (This two-step process helps to reduce shrinkage of the crust during baking.)

5. 5. Meanwhile, adjust oven rack to middle position and heat oven to 375 degrees. Press doubled 18-inch square of heavy-duty foil inside shell and fold back edges of foil to shield fluted edge; evenly distribute about 2 cups metal or ceramic pie weights over foil. Bake, leaving foil and weights in place until dough dries and lightens in color, 17 to 20 minutes. Carefully remove foil and weights by gathering sides of foil and pulling up and out. Bake until light golden brown, about 9 minutes longer. Remove from oven; reduce oven temperature to 350 degrees.

6. 6. Prick sweet potatoes several times with fork and place on double layer of paper towels in microwave (see illustrations below). Cook at full power for 5 minutes; turn each potato over and continue to cook at full power until tender, but not mushy, about 5 minutes longer. Cool 10 minutes. Halve each potato crosswise; insert small spoon between skin and flesh, and scoop flesh into medium bowl; discard skin. (If potatoes are too hot to handle comfortably, fold double layer of paper towels into quarters and use to hold potato half). Repeat with remaining sweet potatoes; you should have about 2 cups. While potatoes are still hot, add butter and mash with fork or wooden spoon; small lumps of potato should remain.

7. 7. Whisk together eggs, yolks, sugar, nutmeg, and salt in medium bowl; stir in bourbon, molasses (if using), and vanilla, then whisk in milk. Gradually add egg mixture to sweet potatoes, whisking gently to combine.

8. 8. Heat partially baked pie shell in oven until warm, about 5 minutes. Sprinkle bottom of pie shell evenly with brown sugar. Pour sweet potato mixture into pie shell over brown sugar layer. Bake until filling is set around edges but center jiggles slightly when shaken, about 45 minutes. Transfer pie to wire rack; cool to room temperature, about 2 hours, and serve.


Preparing the Sweet Potatoes

1. In preparing for microwaving, lay the sweet potatoes out in a fan shape on a double thickness of paper towels.

2. Cut each cooked potato in half crosswise, then scoop out the pulp into a mixing bowl with a small spoon.

3. Mash the cooked potatoes coarsely with a fork or spoon. Some small lumps of potato should remain.

2011 IEDP Grenada Documentary

Wednesday, March 30, 2011

IEDP Final Presentation

The International Economic Development Program (IEDP) 2011: Grenada cordially invites you to a presentation on the policy topics and country visit to Grenada this past spring break.

A Reception will follow with pies, cookies, drinks and hearty chats.

Date: Thursday, March 31, 2011.
Time: 17:30 - 18:45
Place: Betty Ford Classroom, Weill Hall 

2011 Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami

On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea megathrust earthquake hit the northern part of Japan, along with its pacific coast line.  It was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake, the forth largest earthquake since 1900, following the 1964 Chile Earthquake (M9.5), The 1964 Alaska (M9.1), and the 2004 Sumatra (M9.0).  The news was actually striking as it was just one week after we had come back to Ann Arbor from Grenada and started working on the final report for the IEDP as the Disaster Management Group.

It was rather a convoluted crisis as the tsunami has disabled emergency generators to cool down the reactors of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and led to a partial nuclear meltdown, visible explosions, and radiation releases.  The Government of Japan and TEPCO are working on the series of accidents in the Plant; the accidents themselves has become an agenda of emergency in the international community.  Despite of this element, the earthquake and subsequent tsunami were one of the most catastrophic natural disasters in our history.

News reports initially addressed the patience, endurance, and preparation of residents of the affected areas.  Such resilience that Japanese has shown might surprise and strike those who know about the earthquake.  Through our trip in Grenada, the Disaster Management group often come across the term, "community resilience."  This seems to the foundational concept for its national disaster management for the Government of Grenada (or the National Disaster Management Authority).  The strength of community (families, schools, churches, and even social media) complement the government emergency response.

Meanwhile, after two weeks have passed, Japanese media has started to report on uneven distribution of basic supplies across the affected area and the bottleneck of logistics.  As land transpirations, the Pacific-round from Tokyo Metropolitan Area, were impacted and there was a difficulty in access from the East Japan Sea bound,  it has limited the capability to supply foods, waters, gasoline, and even volunteers.  After evacuating their community and settle to an evacuation center, people are getting frustrated and stressed.  Especially, those who have limited or no access to these supplies as well as those vulnerable, including aged persons, suffer severely and face the danger of death.  The circumstance in Grenada seems to be slight different; as it is a small island, one area can be reached either east or west bound; that is an advantage.

Another takeaway from the earthquake in Japan would be that there is a possibility that each of communities may lose its pivotal center or leadership by a natural disaster.  Local government officials, including a city mayor, perished in the earthquake/some of city offices are also totally destroyed.  Without a leadership role in community-level response, how remaining members respond to the crisis would be a critical for a successful emergency response.   So, how to assure collective actions in a crisis through bottom-up cooperation among community members and leadership development/empowerment would be a key area that the Government needs to tackle continuously.

The most common impression to this earthquake is "this was totally unexpected disaster."  Local governments had developed sophisticated disaster-proof infrastructures; the scale and impact of the earthquake and tsunami were totally above the assumption and calculation.  Emergency preparedness is based on vulnerability and risk analyses; it would be the process to prepare for what you expect.   The most important thing is rather to prepare for what you don't expect to happen.  Strong community tie might create secure feeling and enable individuals to act calmly during such a devastating crisis; or, a series of practices help them to do so.  I would say such socio-psychological aspects need to be incorporated into emergency preparedness planning, along with emergency response and recovery.

Saturday, March 5, 2011

Ready to go...

There comes the bus that would bring us to the airport.  I am so sad to leave Grenada.  

I finished my packing and paid my laundry service (I assumed that there were a kind of a laundry center or washer machines...).   It's a bit emotional moment to seat alone and wait others come.  Unfortunately, there is no early bird service. 

It still feels strange to write about the departure without writing anything substantial about our trip.  We would like to update episodes during our trip after arriving Ann Arbor.

Our experience should be evaluated based on our final outcome.  After back to A2, we will work hard on incorporating what we see and find into our preliminary analyses.  Please allow us to emphasize that it was an awesome experience.

We would like to express our appreciation to genuine support from funders and supporters of the IEDP.  And, this time, we would like to appraise the efforts made by the Fund Raising Committee.

Friday, March 4, 2011

Internet Changes Everything...

We seemed to be expected to update our daily lives during Spring "Study" Break... The thing has not gone as we had expected :-(

The issue has been the Internet, here.  Yes, we have an access.  The hotel we stays has a Wi-Fi access; my PC catches the WiFi signal in my room...it cannot establish a connection when I am in that room.  The only place I can use the Internet is the lobby (and other restaurant or shopping centers which offer a Free WiFi access).

It looks so strange that one same hotel guest sit in the lobby for a very long time just looking PC screen, not looking at such a beautiful blue sky and lovely wind as well as amazing beach... But, I need to do so to pick up various materials from a cloud storage and doing follow-up studies for preparation.

We have gotten a ton of insights and inspirations (+ motivation) from speakers.  They have pursued their mission, struggled with various obstacles, and maintained hope to achieve their mission, as those who work in the US do.  It would be an overgeneralization, but some discipline that Ford School taught has some sort of applicability in Grenada.  It is important to separate path dependency or cultural/historical context to analyze the issue.  In this context, the US (or other industrialized country) is not special as Grenada is not special.

So, that's the same in the US; we cannot do well without the Internet as well.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Final Meeting Before Trip

We had the final meeting before the spring break (i.e. the trip to Grenada) on Wednesday.  Prior to the meeting, each policy group had been assigned to submit a preliminary analysis paper.  The Wednesday meeting was not only for the guidance of the trip but also feedbacks to the paper.  The main focuses of the paper were a kind of political environment analysis (power center analysis) and a series of questions that we want to explore during the trip.

Our trip aims at find these missing piece to complement and evaluate (prove or reject) our hypothesis through a series of interviews of various stakeholders.   Thanks to the Internet and multilateral cooperations across the region, we had tremendous amounts of information on each of policy issues in Grenada.  These articles helped us to assess issues that we would like to focus on in each of policy group.  Doing survey was  a tough job; we did have lots of information to write down a series of policy recommendations.  Meanwhile, there were lots of missing peace, that we could not find.  There might be a kind of "trend" among the Government, International Governmental Organizations and Non-profit organizations; articles focused on similar phenomena or aspect.  Moreover, limited data availability in Grenada makes quantitative analyses absolutely difficult.  After Hurricane Ivan and Emily, the Government, working with some of the International Governmental Organizations, conducted collecting data to do some preliminary analysis based on number.  It was still difficult to run a study based on a time series data-set to identify impacts.

So, you should be aware that to find out people who are generous and willing to meet us + make sure that we are in the meeting place on time.  That would be another dimension of  the difficulty of a student-run study trip.

Members (especially, the Documentation Committee) appreciate the amazing jobs made by the Contact and Logistics Committee (and their organized pre-trip presentation).

We would also like to express our sincere appreciation to those who has generously accepted our requests of meetings and helped us to find other officials in Grenada, who would give us very valuable insights for our research.

Thank you very much!!

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Mid-Term and Spring Break

The Ford School Community as well as the U of M Community are now in the midst of the chaos of Mid-Term.  That is the part of our exciting school life; nobody question the statement that the most important mission of students is studying.  Meanwhile, Mid-Term has a special meaning for the IEDP team.  

The time to visit Grenada is approaching.  

We have broken up into two groups, based on our availability and schedule; the first group will depart from Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport this Friday.  The following group will join them on Sunday.  I personally have two papers due on Thursday and need to finish two paper works by Friday (and packing). 

It is a quite exciting moment to think about what would happen in St. George's.  That is a very moment to escape from approaching deadline...

The IEDP team has already concluded group presentations and preliminary assessments; these are the pre-trip preparations.  That gave us an interesting insight to look at international development; the unique challenges that each of the small island developing states has faced.  When confronting each of multidisciplinary and multi-stakeholder issues, disaster management, Millennium Development Goals, tourism, and waste management, some of recipes, best practices, rules of thumb, or whatever, can not be applied because of stricter constraints. 

Our final outcome does need to overcome this aspect; the trip to Grenada during the spring break aims to confirm to what extent our understanding and tentative analyses fit the reality and deepen our problem-solving thinking toward a possible (and feasible) solution.

So, we are thrilled to "study" and "research" during the Spring Break, apart from our paperworks for a while.

Finally, we would like to express our sincere appreciation for the supports given to the IEDP projects; this time let us thank especially Zana of the International Policy Center, for your mindful support to the final-minute preparation to make our trip safe.  

Of course, the members of the Documentation Committee also appreciated from the bottom of our heart the final minutes efforts made by other committees, along with your Mid-Term assignments and exams !!

We also hope that we can update periodically during the trip.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

Art in Grenada

One of the exciting activities of travels is enjoying arts: music, performance arts, drawings, pictures, sculptures...etc. Arts is a major element of tourism as well as a channel to publicize and distribute cultural images. Especially, I appreciate drawings and sculptures- traditional formats of arts. In the pre-picture era,  drawings were the only visual mean to record historical events as well as daily lives. It incorporated emotions of painters and intellectual influence from the art scene within the country and outside.

Yellow Poui Art Gallery (Grenada Explorer Website)
NY-based Grenadian Artist, Eric M John's Website (Grenada Art)

Grenadian Media

As we get used to acquire information directly from websites of stakeholders, we often denigrate the value of newspapers as well as other traditional media. However, those traditional media are still useful and convenient resources to know what is going on where the Internet is not necessarily the major mean to disseminate information. Media agencies collect, edit, and distribute information via the Internet instead of those individuals, companies, or agencies which do not disseminate.

Here's a list of links to major media agencies of Grenada.

The Barnacle
Grenada Informer
Grenada Today (not updated since 2008)

Grenada Broadcasting Network

Internet News
Spice Islander
Grenada Broadcast
Grenadian Connection

Cheers to the Internet !!

Sunday, February 6, 2011

February 7, 1974 - Grenada's Independence Day

This day, February 7, marks the 37th Anniversary of Grenada’s independence from the United Kingdom. Premier, Sir Eric Matthew Gairy, Grenada’s first Prime Minister, led the country into independence. Prior to independence, Grenada became an “Associated State of the United Kingdom” in 1967, which enabled Grenada to be responsible for her own internal affairs, while the UK still remained responsible for Grenada’s defense and foreign affairs.

Every independence day, it is customary for the current Prime Minister and Governor Generals to offer independence messages. Past messages have updated the Grenadian public on increased government social spending, as well as progress related to new policies such as the working Draft of Grenada’s National Strategic Development Plan introduced in 2007 by Prime Minister Keith Mitchell to promote investments in agriculture, health, education, and youth. This year’s independence message by Prime Minister Tillman Thomas focuses on the theme of “Celebrating 37 years through challenging times, with optimism and resilience.” In his message, Prime Minister Thomas calls for Grenadians to unite and tolerate differences among one another in an effort to move forward in the years to come.

Mr. Anthony C. George designed Grenada’s national flag.
The star at the very center of the flag represents the capital of St. George, symbolizing Grenada’s sovereignty and a guiding light for the country. The diagonal lines which divide the flag into three colors radiating from the star symbolize “maximum expansion” to indicate progress and how far Grenadians have come from their colonial past. Red is the most prominent color on the flag signifying national fervor, pride, and aspirations. Yellow symbolizes warmth and Grenada’s beautiful sunshine, while green represents Grenada’s fertile soil and lush vegetation. The left green triangle showcases the Isle of Spice with nutmeg, Grenada’s highly valued export. The gold outer stars convey Grenada’s six parishes which are: St. Andrew, St. George, St. David, St. John, St. Mark, and St. Patrick.
Locals look forward to celebrating Grenada’s independence each year. Calypso and soca music also fill neighborhoods and bars. Grenadian folk dancers express their national pride by wearing green, red, and yellow. Locals decorate the streets for the annual military parade.

Tuesday, February 1, 2011

Bananagrams Tournament - IEDP fundraiser

Do you like board games? Do you like to crush your opponents? Do you like helping out a good cause?

We'll be holding a Ford School Board Game Tournament on Friday, February 18th at 4pm in the Betty Ford Classroom to fundraise for our IEDP trip to Grenada.  We'll be playing Bananagrams tournament-style, but will have a few other board games (Scrabble, Settlers of Catan, etc) on hand for those who just want to come and hang out.

For those of you who haven't played Bananagrams before, it's a hyper version of Scrabble--you compete with other people to see who can arrange words from tiles the quickest.  There are more details here (http://www.bananagrams-intl.com/instructions.asp).  It's takes no more than a few minutes to learn and is incredibly fun!

The winner will receive a gift certificate--I'll email out details on the gift certificate soon.

We're asking for a minimum of a $5 donation to enter (and if you want to give more, that'd be fantastic).

The tournament is open to everyone--students, staff, faculty, friends, significant others, precocious children, etc--so pass the word along!

If you're interested, please sign up here: http://bit.ly/gdpJCP

Kate Saetang

This American Life - Students Decide whether to Invade Grenada

Listen to the first part of this episode from This American Life!
A class of elementary school students visits the Reagan Presidential Library and is part of a simulation deciding whether or not the US should invade Grenada. (... guaranteed to incite ironic chuckles)


Wednesday, January 26, 2011

Houses of Parliament in Grenada

Parliamentary democracy as we understand it today is based upon the consent of the governed.  Sovereignty resides in the people and it is they who decide who shall occupy the seats of power.

Parliament consists of the Queen, represented by the Governor General, the Senate and the House of Representatives.  The Governor-General summons Parliament, brings its session to an end by prorogation, and formally assents to every bill before it can become law.  In practice, he exercises all these powers on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet.

The passage of legislation depends on the participation of all three component parts of Parliament.  A bill must be agreed to by both Houses and receive the Royal Assent before it can become an Act of Parliament.  The powers of the Senate and the House of Representatives are constitutionally equal except that financial legislation may not be introduced in the Senate.

All Senators are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition.
The House of Representatives is directly elected by the people, and although by tradition the Senate is the Upper House and the House of Representatives is the Lower House, it is the House of Representatives which plays the predominant part in the parliamentary system.

The Parliament of Grenada came into being in 1974 when Grenada became an independent country.

The Senate consists of thirteen (13) non-elected Members. The members come from different sources.  They are:
  • Seven are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister;
  • Three are appointed on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition; and
  • Three are appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister after he has consulted the organizations or interests which he considers the Senators should be selected to represent.
  • To act as a House of review with responsibility for expressing second opinion in relation to legislative and other proposals initiated in the House of Representatives;
  • To ensure proper consideration of all legislation;
  • To provide adequate scrutiny of financial measures;
  • To initiate non-financial legislation as the Senate sees fit: the Senate’s capacity to initiate proposed legislation effectively means that Parliament is not confined in its opportunities for considering public issues in a legislative context to those matters covered by bills brought forward by the executive;
  • To probe and check the administration of laws and to keep itself informed and to insist on ministerial accountability for the administration of the Government;
  • To provide effective scrutiny of Government and enable adequate expression of debate about policy and government programmes.  As a parliamentary forum, the Senate is one place where a Government can be, of right, questioned and obliged to answer.
All bills must be passed by the Senate before they can become law and it has the constitutional right to reject any bill, and keep on rejecting it as long as it sees fit.  It can also amend any bill, although it cannot initiate or increase the amount of any bill dealing with taxation or expenditure.

The House of Representatives was modelled on the British, and even now, in any matter of procedure not provided for by its own rules and practices, the rules and practices of the British House of Commons are followed.

The House of Representatives is the focal point of parliamentary activity and public attention, the grand forum of the nation, where major national and international issues are debated; where the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition may be seen in regular confrontation; where Cabinet Ministers defend the policies and conduct of their departments; where the nation’s business in freely and openly transacted, all that is said and done being faithfully recorded.

Parliament makes the laws and the House of Representatives plays the predominant part in making them.  Any member can introduce bills, except bills involving expenditure or taxation, which can only be introduced by the government.  Since the responsibilities of government now extend into almost every sphere of activity, and since most government action involves spending money (and raising it by taxes, fees, loans, and so forth), most of the time of the House is spent on Government Bills.

Every bill must pass both Houses and receive the Royal Assent before it becomes law.  Assent is signified by the Governor General.

By law a general election must be held at least once every five years.  However, Parliament may be dissolved and an election called before the statutory period has elapsed, and this is what normally happens.  The power to dissolve Parliament is a royal prerogative exercised by the Governor General, normally on the advice of the Prime Minister.

Wednesday, January 19, 2011

IEDP 2011 Group Picture

Fatman George - Skin Up (Grenada soca 2010)

This is the SKINUP that Tova mentioned in today's class. However, I don't have any clue what this song is singing about.

Rum Shop Culture

Nearly every village on the island has at least one rum shop on the street corner where the locals go to gossip, play pool or darts, and discuss politics--politricks according to Bajans.  The rum shop was (and still is) a central institution in village life.  "The Rum Shop served as a meeting point for society's more colorful members.  [It] is often seen as a common ground, where people form [sic] all walks of life could meet and feel the pulse of society, exchange ideas and refresh themselves" (www.tidco.co.tt/local/THF-1996/rumshop/).  I was told once:  "If you want to experience real Bajan culture, visit the rum shops and talk."  

From: http://www.courses.vcu.edu/ENG-snh/Caribbean/Barbados/Images/rumshop.htm

Monday, January 17, 2011

Exploring the Sounds of Grenada

Week 3 of the IEDP focuses on Grenada's cultural dynamics. A cultural element such as music can serve as a means to express social commentary as well as protest. Calypso is an Afro-Caribbean style of music which originated in Trinidad and Tobago in the 18th century that blends modern folk culture with the history of slavery and colonialism. The Calypso musical style stems from the Caribbean's African heritage as well as French, Spanish, and British influences. In many ways, the Calypso genre became a means to spread news and test the boundaries of free speech under British rule. Historically, the general public of Trinidad relied upon these songs for news of the day, but the songs also inspired many political debates surrounding corruption, political independence, and social norms.

                                     (King Ajamu, http://www.ajamumusic.com/biography.htm)

Today Edson Mitchell, popularly known as "King Ajamu," is Grenada's most prominent award-winning Calypsonian. King Ajamu began singing and writing Calypso in Trinidad in 1983. His music is a combination of Calypso, soca, and reggae. Some of his most popular songs are: "A Prayer to the Nation," "Oh Grenada," "Freedom," and "Until My Work is Over."

Movie: Island in the Sun

The movie, Island in the Sun, was filmed in Grenada in 1956, helping promote Grenada as a tourist destination. The movie is based on the novel by Alec Waugh, and stars an ensemble cast including James Mason, Joan Fontaine, Dorothy Dandridge, Joan Collins.

Plot summary for Island in the Sun:

Set on a fictitious island in the Carribean during colonial British rule. It focuses on the life of a young charismatic and handsome black male with political aspirations. He finds himself confused on returning home when his romantic liaison with a white female tends to conflict with his political views. As rumor has it an interracial screen kiss caused quite a commotion in the U.S. when the film was released. The plot is further strengthened by a look at the lives of a white ex-pat family also living on the island. The family has to deal with problems of infidelity, racism and murder. Written by Warren D. Mottley <trident@toj.com>